Department Of Disabled And Senior Citizens

Name of the Officer Designation Contact Number Email OFFICE ADRESS Photo
OFFICE Land line:08272-295829

Information On The Implementation Of Various Projects Of The Empowerment Department Of Disabled And Senior Citizens

1.Disabled Identity Card: (UDID) Department Of Disability Identity Cards Is A Scheme That Requires At Least 40% Disability To Identify Persons With Disabilities. ( Registered Applications Are Checked By The Department Of Health And Family Welfare Through The Medical Sciences Institute, Bodhgaya Hospital, Madikeri.

2.Special Schools: – A Child-Centered Educational Project For Disabled Children To Educate And Develop Disabled Children. There Are 2 Special Schools In The District, 2 Subsidized (Opportunity School, Kodagu Vidyalaya, Madikeri And Cheshire Home India Coorg Polibetta, Virajpete Taluk) And 2 Unaided (Self-Care Special Education And Rehabilitation Center) Two Of These Are Children With Maintain And One Hearing Impaired Children Who Are Working In Kodagu District.

3.Reimbursement of fee for higher education disabled persons: – Examination, tuition fees, laboratory fees and library fees fixed by the government for students with disabilities who are selected for higher education, vocational education, technical education, postgraduate and vocational courses after SSLC.

4.Distribution Of Talking Laptop To Blind Students: – Providing Laptops To All Students Who Are Studying In SSLC And Post. There Is No Income Limit.

5.Scholarships For Disabled Students: Under This Scheme, Scholarships Are Awarded To Eligible Persons With Disabilities Studying In Class I From Post Graduate.

  • Submitting Applications To District Disabled Welfare Officers Of The Respective District With The Confirmation Of The Head Of School
  • There Is No Income Limit

Scholarship Amount

Sl.No Class Scholarship Amount (Per month) Scholarship (10*1)
1 1 to 50th std 200/- 200*10=2000
2 6th to 10th std 400/ 400*10=4000
3 P.U.C 600/ 600*10=6000
4 Technical & Professional 400/ 500*10=2000
5 Post graduation 600/ 600*10=6000

6.Incentive Awards to Meritorious Students with disability: The scheme provides one time Incentive Award to Meritorious disabled students who secure more than 60% of marks in public examinations.

Sl.No class scholarship (per month)
1 SSLC 3000/-
2 II year PUC 5000/
3 DEGREE/T.C.H 8000/
5 Degree in Agriculture Engineering Technology Vet. Science and Medicine 12000/

7.Aids and Appliances:-Three-Wheeler Vehicles, Hearing Aids, Artificial Limbs, Braille Clocks, White Sticks, A Project To Distribute Various Types Of Handicraft Equipment To Their Various Disabilities.

8.ADHARA SELF EMPLOYMENT PROGRAMME:-50% Of The Project Cost And 50% Of The Subsidy Amount Will Be Provided As Assistance To Disabled Persons In Accordance With The Loan Sanctioned And Issued By Banks For Self Employment.

9.BUS PASS :The Passes Will Be Issued Free Of Cost To The Blind And Other Disabled Buses Traveling On Karnataka State Road Transport Buses.

10.NPRPD(National Programme For Rehabilitaion Fpr Person With Disability): Under This Scheme, TELL Level Will Be Hired To Provide Special Needs Rehabilitation Services To The Disabled Persons At The Taluka Level Where The Facilities Of The Department Are Available. And Urws Will Be Appointed To Town Panchayats.

Vidyodhya Rehabilitation Activist As per one taluk panchayat of 3 talukas in Kodagu district, Rs. 6,000 / – is being honored.

11.CORRECTIVE SURGERY: The Scheme Aims At Providing Financial Assistance To Undergo Corrective Surgeries. Financial Assistance Up To Maximum Of Rs.1,00,000/- Is Provided For Corrective Surgeries. The Eligible Amount Will Be Released Directly To The Hospitals.Concerned On Submission Of Amount Specified Documents.

12.DISABLE MARRIAGE SUPPORTING SCHEME: Ordinary Person Disability Scheme A scheme to deposit Rs.50,000/-



15.Baby Care Allownce: Scheme For Providing Health Care And Nutritional Food For A Period Of 5 Years To 2 Months For A Child Birth Of 5 Years For A Child Born To A Totally Deaf Woman From Poor Families Within An Annual Income Limit Of Rs. 2.50 Lakh.

16.Insurance Scheme for Mentally Retarded persons:Under This Scheme, The Parents / Guardians Of Persons With Mental Retardation Whose Annual Income Is Rs.11,500/- Or Less Per Year, The Directorate Of Disabled Welfare Contributes The Annual Premium To Life Insurance Of Corporation Of India Under A Specially Designed Group Insurance Policy.Under This Policy, After The Demise Of The Parents / Guardians Of The Mentally Retarded Person, The Nominee Will Get A One Time Lump Sum Amount Of Rs.20,000/- For The Maintenance Of The Person With Retardation.

17.Niramya Scheme- For The First Time, Rs. 250 / – Has Been Paid By The Government For Insurance Premiums For Individuals With Brain Impairment / Cerebral Palsy / Autism / Multiple Disabilities.

18.Unemployment Allowance:- This Scheme Is Not Eligible For Beneficiaries Under The Monthly Nutrition Allowance, Fee Reimbursement And Scholarship Scheme. Must Have 40% And Above Disability As Well As SSLC And Post Qualification

19.Sparda Cheatana Scheme:

20. Brail Kit For Disable Student:- The Project Is Being Implemented By 2020-21, With A Plan To Distribute Kits Worth Rs 25,000 Each To The Blind Students, Including The Talking Mobel, Braille Watch, Walking Stick And Other Equipment

21. Distribution Of Sewing Machine For Self Employed Persons With Hearing Impairment: The Scheme Is Implemented For The Year 2010-2021 And Should Be Attended To SSLC And Certified For The Profession.

22.Disabled Helpline: All disabled persons in Kodagu District can find information on Departmental Plans by contacting the Disabled Helpline by calling 08272-295829.

23. Braille Press: Braille books for the blind students are printed by the Braille Press in Mysore and are being supplied free of charge to all schools in the state.

24. Disabled Employer and Beneficiary (Male / Female) Government Dormitory: – The employer and the employer have separate dormitories for men and women and those who stay in the hostel will have to pay 5 per cent of their income to the government in the form of rent and benefits to the dining system.

25. Hostel for Women and Students with Employment Disabilities: Meal and accommodation should be provided only to disabled working women / women who are below the poverty line.


1.Parents’ Nutrition, Protection and Protection of Senior Citizens Act 2007: This scheme was implemented in the State of Karnataka from 01-04-2008 under the provisions of sub-section (1) of section 7 of the Violence, Exploitation, Fraud and Fraud Act under this Act. The Court of Appeals, which is created under the Chairmanship of the Supervisors, can file cases and seek justice within a maximum of 90 days.

2.Senior Citizens Identity Card: Senior Citizens Application can be submitted online at the Seva Sindhu web portal The application shall be verified by the District Disabled Welfare Officer and the senior citizen’s identity card will be accepted within 21 days.

3.Indira Gandhi National Professional Salary and Sandhya Suraksha Scheme: Under this scheme, beneficiaries aged 60 to 64 are given a pension of Rs. 1000

Sandhya Suraksha Scheme: Government Order No: RD97 MST from the Revenue Department: 2007-07-2007, a monthly subsidy of Rs.1000

4.Senior Citizens Helpline: – Senior Citizens Helpline is being operated in collaboration with the Self Help Organizations of the District Police Superintendent’s Office in the 30 districts of the State to provide legal assistance for the emergency assistance of the senior citizens and to resolve their issues. Green Rural Development Agency (RI), Pen Shan LIN, Madikeri Senior Citizens Helpline has been established in Madikeri district with the assistance of the Police Commissioner.

5. Daycare Wellness Center for Senior Citizens: – Senior caregivers who cannot afford to look after their family during the day can avail themselves of small health problems to spend time with them and socialize with their older people to enjoy time with them.

6. Old Shakti Vidhyasam: Shri Shakti Vidyashrama is functioning under the auspices of the Government of India under the Central Government grant at Thayagaraja Colony in Madikeri, to provide free meals, housing and medical facilities to destitute persons aged sixty and over.

21Types of Disability

  1. Blindness
  2.  Low-vision
  3. Hearing Impairment  
  4.  Speech and Language disability
  5. Physical /Locomotor Disability 
  6. Mental illness  
  7. Specific Learning Disabilities
  8. Cerebral Palsy  
  9. Autism 
  10.  Multiple Disabilities
  11.  Leprosy Cured persons
  12.  Dwarfism
  13. Intellectual Disability 
  14.  Muscular Dystrophy
  15. Chronic Neurological Conditions  
  16. Multiple Sclerosis  
  17. Thalassemia 
  18. Hemophilia  
  19. Sickle Cell disease/Anemia  
  20. Acid Attack victim 
  21. Parkinson’s disability 


Many people imagine blindness as complete darkness. But that’s not entirely true

The term “blindness” covers a broad spectrum of visual disability, from when your sight is impaired enough to interfere with daily activities like reading, cooking or driving, up to total blindness.

Each person’s experience of blindness is unique. Blindness has many causes, and each affects eyesight differently:

  • Retinal diseases like age-related macular degeneration create distortion or blind spots in the central vision.
  • Diseases like glaucoma and retinitis pigmentosa impact peripheral sight, creating “tunnel vision.”
  • Genetic conditions like albinism cause low vision and make people highly sensitive to light.
  • Eye conditions like nystagmus affect how the eyes move and coordinate, reducing vision and depth perception.
  • Some congenital conditions may impair sight, leaving someone with only light perception.
  • Damage to the optic nerve, which sends signals from the eye to the brain, or an injury to the part of the brain that processes information from our eyes can affect the ability to perceive or recognize objects or visual information.

Different types of blindnes

  • CVI. CVI, or cortical/cerebral visual impairment, is the leading cause of modern day blindness in children
  • Retinitis Pigmentosa
  • Macular Degeneration
  • Retinopathy of Prematurity


Low vision refers to vision loss that cannot be corrected by medical or surgical treatments or conventional eyeglasses.

  • Central vision loss (not being able to see things in the center of your vision)
  • Peripheral vision loss (not being able to see things out of the corners of your eyes)
  • Night blindness (not being able to see in low light)
  • Blurry or hazy vision.

This is a medical term for irreversible eye complications affecting visual acuity and/or visual field. With these deficits, conventional interventions such as prescription glasses, contact lenses, corrective surgery, and medical treatments don’t work. Such types of impairment may be congenital, due to injury to the optic nerves, acquired brain injury, or in the majority of instances, the result of a degenerative eye disease. These include Diabetic Retinopathy, Age-related Macular Degeneration, Cataracts, Retinitis Pigmentosa, and Glaucoma.

“Treatment” isn’t treatment in the sense that the deficits will go away. It involves judicious use of visual aids and devices along with rehabilitation therapy to maximize remaining eyesight and enable people to live productive, active, and meaningful lives.

Hearing Impairment

“an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.”

It can range from a mild loss, in which a person misses certain high-pitched sounds, such as the voices of women and children, to a total loss of hearing. There are two general categories of hearing loss: Sensorineural hearing loss occurs when there is damage to the inner ear or the auditory nerve.
Two types in Hearing loss is

  • one ear (unilateral)
  • both ears (bilateral)

Speech and Language disability

Some common speech impediments are:

  • Stuttering. This condition might indicate developmental delay, an inherited condition or a sign your child’s brain isn’t coordinating the functions that drive speech
  • Articulation errors
  • Tongue-tie (ankyloglossia)
  • Apraxia
  • Dysarthria
  • Selective mutism
  • A speech disorder is a condition in which a person has problems creating or forming the speech sounds needed to communicate with others. This can make the child’s speech difficult to understand.
    Common speech disorders are:

  • Articulation disorders
  • Phonological disorders
  • Disfluency
  • Voice disorders or resonance disorders
  • Disruptions in communication development are broadly classified as speech disorders and language disorders. Speech disorder is defined as disruption in the production of the phonetic aspects of words, phrases, and sentences so that communication is partially or, in severe cases, completely unintelligible to listeners.

    Physical /Locomotor Disability

    Total loss of hearing in both ears; (e) ” locomotor disability” meansa person’ s inability to execute distinctive activities associated.

    Locomotor disability Disability of the bones, joint or muscles leading to substantial restriction of the movement of the limbs or a usual form of cerebral palsy. Some
    common conditions giving raise to locomotor disability could be poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy,amputation, injuries of spine, head, soft tissues,fractures, muscular dystrophies etc.

    Locomotor Disability

    1. The child is not able to raise both the arms fully without any difficulties.
    2. The child is not able to grasp objects without any difficulty.
    3. The child has absence of any part of the limb.
    4. The child has a difficulty in walking.


    • Permanent Physical impairment of Upper Limb
    • Permanent Physical impairment of Lower Limb
    • Permanent Physical impairment of Trunk (Spine)
    • Permanent Physical impairment in case Short Stature/ Dwarfism
    • Permanent Physical impairment in Amputees
    • Longitudinal deficiencies
    • Permanent Physical impairment in Neurological conditions
    • Permanent Physical impairment due to cardiopulmonary Diseases

    Mental illness

    Mental illness, also called mental health disorders, refers to a wide range of mental health conditions — disorders that affect your mood, thinking and behavior. Examples of mental illness include depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, eating disorders and addictive behaviors.

    Mental illness is a general term for a group of illnesses that may include symptoms that can affect a person’s thinking, perceptions, mood or behaviour. Mental illness can make it difficult for someone to cope with work, relationships and other demands. The relationship between stress and mental illness is complex, but it is known that stress can worsen an episode of mental illness. Most people can manage their mental illness with medication, counselling or both.This page lists some of the more common mental health issues and mental illnesses.

    Types of Mental illness

  • Depression
  • Dissociative Disorders.
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Schizophrenia
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Eating Disorders

Specific Learning Disabilities

A specific learning disability is defined by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) as a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, whether spoken or written, that manifests itself in the inability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell .

  • Spoken language-listening and speaking
  • Written language-reading, writing, and spelling
  • Arithmetic-calculation and concepts
  • Reasoning-organization and integration of ideas and thoughts
  • Types of learning disability

  • • Dyslexia
  • • Dysgraphia
  • • Dyscalculia
  • • Auditory processing disorder
  • • Language processing disorder
  • • Nonverbal learning disabilities
  • • Visual perceptual/visual motor deficit

Cerebral Palsy

Cerebral palsy is usually caused by a problem that affects the development of a baby’s brain while it’s growing in the womb. These include: damage to part of the brain called white matter, possibly as a result of a reduced blood or oxygen supply

Cerebral Palsy is typically diagnosed during the first or second year after birth. If a child’s symptoms are mild, it is sometimes difficult to make a diagnosis until the child is a few years older. With the appropriate services and support, children and adults with CP can stay well, active, and a part of the community.

Signs of cerebral palsy

  • Developmental delays. The child is slow to reach milestones such as rolling over, sitting, crawling, and walking
  • Abnormal muscle tone. Body parts are floppy or too stiff.
  • Abnormal posture


Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability caused by differences in the brain. Some people with ASD have a known difference, such as a genetic condition. Other causes are not yet known. Scientists believe there are multiple causes of ASD that act together to change the most common ways people develop..
There are five major types of autism which include

There are five major types of autism which include

  • Asperger’s syndrome
  • Rett syndrome
  • childhood disintegrative disorder
  • Kanner’s syndrome
  • Pervasive developmental disorder
  • Autistic Disorder. This is sometimes called “classic” autism
  • Asperger Syndrome. People with Asperger syndrome usually have milder symptoms of autistic disorder
  • Pervasive Developmental Disorder – Not Otherwise Specified

Multiple Disabilities

Multiple disabilities is a term for a person with a combination of disabilities, for instance, someone with both a sensory disability and a motor disability.

A child who is multiple disabled should receive help as early as possible so that she can be helped to achieve her potential, and so that her disabilities will not become worse.

The child will be slow to make progress and will have difficulty in generalizing. It is important that we are patient and that we set realistic goals that are small and achievable, as the child can learn only in small steps with a lot of practice and repetition.
Because children with multiple disabilities have problems with all muscle movement, with understanding and often with seeing and hearing as well, communication is very difficult for them.

Examples of multiple disabilities are

  • Deafblind (Visual Impairment + Hearing Impairment)
  • Visual Impairment + Hearing Impairment + Mental Retardation
  • Visual Impairment + Mental Retardation
  • Cerebral Palsy + Mental Retardation/ Hearing/ Speech/ Visual problems

Leprosy Cured persons

The disease is curable with multidrug therapy. Leprosy is likely transmitted via droplets, from the nose and mouth, during close and frequent contact with untreated cases. Untreated, leprosy can cause progressive and permanent damage to the skin, nerves, limbs, and eyes

Leprosy cured person means a person who has been cured of leprosy but is suffering from:

  1. loss of sensation in hands or feet as well as loss of sensation and paresis in the eye and eye-lid but with no
    manifest deformity;

  2. manifest deformity and paresis but having sufficient mobility in their hands and feet to enable them to engage in normal economic activity;
  3. extreme physical deformity as well as advanced age which prevents him/her from undertaking any gainful occupation, and the expression “leprosy cured” shall construed accordingly.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Discolored patches of skin, usually flat, that may be numb and look faded (lighter than the skin around)
  • Growths (nodules) on the skin
  • Thick, stiff or dry skin.
  • Painless ulcers on the soles of feet.
  • Painless swelling or lumps on the face or earlobes.
  • Loss of eyebrows or eyelashes.


Dwarfism is short stature that results from a genetic or medical condition. Dwarfism is generally defined as an adult height of 4 feet 10 inches (147 centimeters) or less. The average adult height among people with dwarfism is 4 feet (122 cm). Many different medical conditions cause dwarfism.
Disproportionate dwarfism is usually apparent at birth or early in infancy. Proportionate dwarfism may not be diagnosed until later in childhood or the teenage years if your child isn’t growing at an expected rate.

Types of Dwarfism

  • Proportionate
  • Disproportionate (also known as skeletal dysplasias)
  • Achondroplasia
  • Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasias
  • Diastrophic dysplasia

. Intellectual Disability

Intellectual disability is significantly below average intellectual functioning present from birth or early infancy, causing limitations in the ability to conduct normal activities of daily living.

  • Intellectual disability can be genetic or the result of a disorder that interferes with brain development.
  • Most children with intellectual disability do not develop noticeable symptoms until they are in preschool.
  • The diagnosis is based on the results of formal testing.
  • Proper prenatal care lowers the risk of having a child with intellectual disability.
  • Support from many specialists, therapy, and special education help children achieve the highest level of functioning possible.

    Intellectual disability is a neurodevelopmental disorder.The previously used term mental retardation has acquired an undesirable social stigma, so health care practitioners have replaced it with the term intellectual disability.Intellectual disability (ID) is not a specific medical disorder like pneumonia or strep throat, and it is not a mental health disorder. People with ID have significantly below average intellectual functioning that is severe enough to limit their ability to cope with one or more areas of normal daily living (adaptive skills) to such a degree that they require ongoing support. Adaptive skills may be categorized into several areas including

  • Conceptual area: Competence in memory, reading, writing, and math
  • Social area: Interpersonal skills, functional communication, social judgment, and awareness of others’ thoughts and feelings
  • Practical area: Personal care, task organization (for work or school), money management, and health and safety

    People with intellectual disability have varying degrees of impairment, classified from mild to profound. Although fundamentally impairment is caused by the decreased intellectual functioning (typically measured by standardized intelligence tests), the impact on the person’s life depends more on the amount of support the person requires. For example, a person who has only mild impairment on an intelligence test may have such poor adaptive skills that extensive support is required.


  • Is categorized as Limited: Support such as a day program in a sheltered workshop
  • Extensive: Daily, ongoing support
  • Pervasive: High level of support for all activities of daily living, possibly including extensive nursing care
  • Moderate mental retardation
  • Severe mental retardation
  • Profound mental retardation
  • Autism
  • Asperger Syndrome
  • Heller’s Syndrome
  • Pervasive Development Disorder

    Signs of intellectual disability

  • Sit up, crawl, or walk later than other children.
  • Learn to talk later, or have trouble speaking.
  • Find it hard to remember things.
  • Have trouble understanding social rules.
  • Have trouble seeing the results of their actions.
  • Have trouble solving problems

Muscular Dystrophy

Muscular dystrophies are a group of muscle diseases caused by mutations in a person’s genes. Over time, muscle weakness decreases mobility, making everyday tasks difficult. There are many kinds of muscular dystrophy, each affecting specific muscle groups, with signs and symptoms appearing at different ages, and varying in severity. Muscular dystrophy can run in families, or a person can be the first in their family to have a muscular dystrophy. There may be several different genetic types within each kind of muscular dystrophy, and people with the same kind of muscular dystrophy may experience different symptoms.

  • • Enlarged calf muscles
  • • Difficulty walking or running
  • • Unusual walking gait (like waddling).
  • • Trouble swallowing.
  • • Heart problems, such as arrhythmia and heart failure (cardiomyopathy)
  • • Learning disabilities.
  • • Stiff or loose joints.
  • • Muscle pain.


  • • Frequent falls.
  • • Difficulty rising from a lying or sitting position.
  • • Trouble running and jumping.
  • • Waddling gait.
  • • Walking on the toes.
  • • Large calf muscles.
  • • Muscle pain and stiffness.
  • • Learning disabilities.

Chronic Neurological Conditions

Here are many nervous system disorders that require clinical care by a physician or other healthcare professional. Listed in the directory below are some,

Neurological disabilities include a wide range of disorders, such as epilepsy, learning disabilities, neuromuscular disorders, autism, ADD, brain tumors, and cerebral palsy, just to name a few. Some neurological conditions are congenital, emerging before birth.

Chronic neurological conditions :-

(i) “multiple sclerosis” means an inflammatory, nervous system disease in which the myelin sheaths around the axons of nerve cells of the brain and spinal cord are damaged, leading to demyelination and affecting the ability of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord to communicate with each other;
(ii) “Parkinson’s disease” means a progressive disease of the nervous system marked by tremor, muscular rigidity, and slow, imprecise movement, chiefly affecting middle-aged and elderly people associated with degeneration of the basal ganglia of the brain and a deficiency of the neurotransmitter dopamine.

There are other conditions that can be categorized under Chronic Neurological Conditions. Some more examples can be:

  1. Alzheimer’s disease and Dementia
  2. Parkinson’s disease
  3. Dystonia
  4. ALS (Lou Gehrig’s disease)
  5. Huntington’s disease
  6. Neuromuscular disease
  7. Multiple sclerosis
  8. Epilepsy
  9. Stroke

Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple Sclerosis causes multiple disabilities ranging from loss of vision, slurred speech, imbalance, spasticity, incontinence and extreme fatigue. In India Multiple Sclerosis in children is still quite rare but educational institutions must be fully accessible.

  • Difficulty in basic physical mobility
  • May experience fine-motor deficits that can cause penmanship problems
  • May have slow clerical speed
  • May tend to forget skills through disuse.
  • May have trouble generalizing skills from one situation to another.
  • May lack high level thinking and comprehension skills.
  • some traits they may share, including: Students with multiple disabilities may become fearful, angry, and upset in the face of forced or unexpected changes. May execute self-injurious behavior. May have limited self-care skills and independent community living skills.


Thalassemia is an inherited (i.e., passed from parents to children through genes) blood disorder caused when the body doesn’t make enough of a protein called hemoglobin, an important part of red blood cells.

Thalassemia is an inherited (i.e., passed from parents to children through genes) blood disorder caused when the body doesn’t make enough of a protein called hemoglobin, an important part of red blood cells. When there isn’t enough hemoglobin, the body’s red blood cells don’t function properly and they last shorter periods of time, so there are fewer healthy red blood cells traveling in the bloodstream.

Almost everyone with alpha thalassemia X-linked intellectual disability syndrome has distinctive facial features, including widely spaced eyes, a small nose with upturned nostrils, and low-set ears. The upper lip is shaped like an upside-down “V,” and the lower lip tends to be prominent. These facial characteristics are most apparent in early childhood. Over time, the facial features become coarser, including a flatter face with a shortened nose.

Here are different types of thalassaemia, which can be divided into alpha and beta thalassaemias. Beta thalassaemia major is the most severe type. Other types include beta thalassaemia intermedia, alpha thalassaemia major and haemoglobin H disease.


Hemophilia is usually an inherited bleeding disorder in which the blood does not clot properly. This can lead to spontaneous bleeding as well as bleeding
Hemophilia is usually an inherited bleeding disorder in which the blood does not clot properly. This can lead to spontaneous bleeding as well as bleeding following injuries or surgery. Blood contains many proteins called clotting factors that can help to stop bleeding.

There are two major types of hemophilia

  • Mild: Approximately 25% of cases are mild. A person with mild hemophilia has factor levels of 6–30%.
  • Moderate: Approximately 15% of cases a moderate, and a person with moderate hemophilia will have factor levels of 1–5%.
  • Severe: Approximately 60% of cases are severe, and people with severe hemophilia will have factor levels of less than 1%.

    Symptoms of hemophilia

  • Bruising
  • Hematomas, which is when there is bleeding into the muscle or soft tissues
  • Bleeding from the mouth and gums
  • Bleeding after a circumcision
  • Blood in the stool
  • Blood in the urine
  • Nosebleeds that are frequent and difficult to stop
  • Bleeding after vaccinations or other injections
  • Bleeding into the joints

Sickle Cell disease/Anemia

Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an inherited disorder of hemoglobin synthesis that is char- acterized by life-long severe hemolytic anemia, attacks of pain crisis, and chronic organ system damage. A third of the hemolysis in SCA is intravascular and the resulting urinary losses of iron may lead to iron deficiency.


Signs and symptoms of sickle cell anemia usually appear around 6 months of age. They vary from person to person and may change over time. Signs and symptoms can include:

  • Anemia. Sickle cells break apart easily and die. Red blood cells usually live for about 120 days before they need to be replaced. But sickle cells typically die in 10 to 20 days, leaving a shortage of red blood cells (anemia). Without enough red blood cells, the body can’t get enough oxygen and this causes fatigue.
  • Episodes of pain. Periodic episodes of extreme pain, called pain crises, are a major symptom of sickle cell anemia. Pain develops when sickle-shaped red blood cells block blood flow through tiny blood vessels to your chest, abdomen and joints.
    The pain varies in intensity and can last for a few hours to a few days. Some people have only a few pain crises a year. Others have a dozen or more a year. A severe pain crisis requires a hospital stay.
    Some adolescents and adults with sickle cell anemia also have chronic pain, which can result from bone and joint damage, ulcers, and other causes.

  • Swelling of hands and feet. The swelling is caused by sickle-shaped red blood cells blocking blood circulation in the hands and feet.
  • Frequent infections. Sickle cells can damage the spleen, increasing vulnerability to infections. Infants and children with sickle cell anemia commonly receive vaccinations and antibiotics to prevent potentially life-threatening infections, such as pneumonia.
  • Delayed growth or puberty. Red blood cells provide the body with the oxygen and nutrients needed for growth. A shortage of healthy red blood cells can slow growth in infants and children and delay puberty in teenagers.
  • Vision problems. Tiny blood vessels that supply the eyes can become plugged with sickle cells. This can damage the retina — the portion of the eye that processes visual images — and lead to vision problems.

. Acid Attack victim

It causes the skin tissue to melt, often exposing the bones below the flesh, sometimes even dissolving the bone. In some cases when acid has come into contact with the eyes, they have been known to discolour and even burst. After an acid attack, the skin is at an extremely high risk for infection.

Acid attack refers to the premeditated act of throwing corrosive acid on the face and body, with the intent to disfigure, torture, or kill the victim. The acid causes lifelong scarring, physical disfigurement, and in some cases, permanent disability including blindness and immobility.

Education is critical in prevention of acid attacks and other forms of violence against women and girls. Prevention should start early in life, by educating and working with young boys and girls promoting respectful relationships and gender equality.”
The hydrofluoric acid acts as a strong acid which causes corrosive burns with immediate contact to the skin, eyes, respiratory and gastrointestional mucous membrane.

Some of the problems faced by acid attack survivors are :

  • Permanent scarring of the face and body
  • Deafness
  • Loss of vision
  • Loss of ability to communicate and eat
  • Respiratory problems
  • Social difficulties
  • Psychological difficulties
  • Economic difficulties

Parkinson’s disability

Parkinson’s disease is a progressive disorder that affects the nervous system and the parts of the body controlled by the nerves. Symptoms start slowly. The first symptom may be a barely noticeable tremor in just one hand. Tremors are common, but the disorder may also cause stiffness or slowing of movement.

Parkinson’s disease signs and symptoms can be different for everyone. Early signs may be mild and go unnoticed. Symptoms often begin on one side of the body and usually remain worse on that side, even after symptoms begin to affect the limbs on both sides.

Parkinson’s signs and symptoms may include:

  • Tremor. A tremor, or rhythmic shaking, usually begins in a limb, often your hand or fingers. You may rub your thumb and forefinger back and forth. This is known as a pill-rolling tremor. Your hand may tremble when it’s at rest. The shaking may decrease when you are performing tasks.
  • Slowed movement (bradykinesia). Over time, Parkinson’s disease may slow your movement, making simple tasks difficult and time-consuming. Your steps may become shorter when you walk. It may be difficult to get out of a chair. You may drag or shuffle your feet as you try to walk.
  • Rigid muscles. Muscle stiffness may occur in any part of your body. The stiff muscles can be painful and limit your range of motion.
  • Impaired posture and balance. Your posture may become stooped. Or you may fall or have balance problems as a result of Parkinson’s disease.
  • Loss of automatic movements. You may have a decreased ability to perform unconscious movements, including blinking, smiling or swinging your arms when you walk.
  • Speech changes. You may speak softly, quickly, slur or hesitate before talking. Your speech may be more of a monotone rather than have the usual speech patterns.
  • Writing changes. It may become hard to write, and your writing may appear small.

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